PVD vs. CVD: What’s the difference?

PVD vs. CVD: What’s the difference?

In recent years, physical vapor deposition (PVD) and chemical vapor deposition (PVD) have wide applications in various industries to increase the hardness of tools and molds or apply beautiful colors to the products. Thus these two methods are considered as the most attractive surface coating technologies. Then, using the example of cutting tools, let’s make a detailed comparison between these two methods.


Physical vapor deposition (PVD) uses low-voltage, high-current arc discharge technology under vacuum conditions to evaporate the target and ionize the vaporized material and the gas, and finally make the evaporated material and its reaction deposited on the workpiece.

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Discovery and development of tungsten | History of Tungsten


The history of tungsten dates back to the 17th century. At that time, miners in the Erzgebirge Mountains of Saxony, Germany, noticed that some of the ore would interfere with the reduction of cassiterite and produce slag. The miners gave the mines some German nicknames: “wolfert” and “wolfrahm”.

Axel Fredrik Cronstedt
Axel Fredrik Cronstedt

In 1758, the Swedish chemist and mineralogist Axel Fredrik Cronstedt discovered a mineral called “tungsten”, which means “heavy stone” in Swedish. He was convinced that this mineral contained an element that had not yet been discovered.


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What is Magnesium Fluoride?

Chemical Formula of Magnesium Fluoride
Chemical Formula of Magnesium Fluoride

SAM®Magnesium fluoride is an inorganic compound with the formula MgF2, which is a white, fluorescent crystal. It is insoluble in water and alcohol, and soluble in nitric acid. It can be used in ceramics and glass. Magnesium Fluoride is one of the lowest index infrared materials that it is transparent over a wide range of wavelengths, thus is used for optical elements in both the infrared and ultraviolet. It is resistant to thermal and mechanical shock and is twice as hard as Calcium Fluoride.

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How was niobium discovered? | History of Niobium

Last week, we talked about the discovery of Titanium, which raised many interest. So we decide to start a history column, aiming at introducing the discovery of different kinds of metals. If you are a metal lover or history lover, you can follow our website. For previous posts of this column please search the keyword “history”. So let’s get down to the point. Today SAM Sputter Targets will teach you the history lesson of Niobium.

niobium hostorySAM®Niobium, often found in the minerals pyrochlore and columbite, is a silver-gray, soft and ductile rare metal with high melting point. At normal temperature, niobium does not react with air, but it can directly combine with sulfur, nitrogen and carbon at high temperatures to form NbS2, NbN and NbC. Niobium does not react with inorganic acids or alkalis, and is insoluble in aqua regia, but soluble in hydrofluoric acid. Because of its good superconductivity, high melting point, corrosion resistance and wear resistance, niobium is widely used in steel, superconducting materials, aerospace, atomic energy and other fields.

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Application of molybdenum in metal smelting

Compared to metals such as titanium, aluminum and platinum, molybdenum does not seem to be as famous, but it is also a very widely used metal in our life. So in the next few weeks, SAM Sputter Targets will introduce different applications of molybdenum. If you are interested in metals, please follow us for subsequent updates. Today we will first introduce the application of molybdenum in metal smelting.



The main use of molybdenum is to produce various types of steel and alloys. The addition of molybdenum (mainly in the form of ferromolybdenum, molybdenum oxide and calcium molybdate) to a range of steels such as structural steel, spring steel, bearing steel, tool steel, stainless steel and magnetic steel can significantly improve the properties of steel. Molybdenum improves the hardenability, toughness and heat strength of steel and prevents temper brittleness. Molybdenum also improves the corrosion resistance of steel to certain media so that it does not pitting. The addition of molybdenum to the cast iron enhances the strength and wear resistance of the cast iron.

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How was titanium discovered? | History of Titanium

Titanium historySAM®Titanium is a metal element that is known as “space metal” because of its light weight, high strength and good corrosion resistance. The most common compound of titanium is titanium dioxide, and other compounds include titanium tetrachloride and titanium trichloride. At present, titanium is widely used in aerospace, automotive, medical, marine and other fields. Its abundant reserves provide a resource base for the wide application of titanium – titanium is one of the most widely distributed and abundant elements in the earth’s crust, accounting for 0.16% of the crustal mass, ranking ninth. However, do you know how this magical element was discovered? Let SAM Sputter Targets give you a history lesson.

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How is tantalum used in phones?

We have talked about the Application of Tantalum Target in Thermal Inkjet Print Head and Copper Plating before, which rises your interest on this element. However, most people think thermal inkjet print and copper plating are far away from their life, thus are difficult to understand. So today, SAM sputter targets will talk about something that EVERYONE is familiar with—your mobile phones.


Tantalum is a very important element in the electronic industry. And it is widely used in all kinds of electronic devices, such as phones and computers. The main use of tantalum materials in electronic products comes in the creation of tantalum capacitor. Tantalum capacitors have their unique advantages over other capacitors. They do not use electrolytes like ordinary electrolytic capacitors, making them ideal for operation at high temperatures. Solid tantalum capacitors have excellent electronic properties, wide operating temperature range, various forms and excellent volumetric efficiency.

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What is Copper Sulfide Sputtering target?

Copper sulfide is an inorganic compound with a chemical formula of CuS. It is dark brown and extremely insoluble. It is one of the most insoluble substances (second only to silver sulfide, mercury sulphide, palladium sulfide and platinous sulfide).

 Copper Sulfide Sputtering target
Copper Sulfide Sputtering target

Copper sulfide sputtering targets can be used in the semiconductor industry for the fabrication of thin film deposition from different materials for processing of integrated circuits, fabrication of architectural window glass used for energy conversation, data storage, hybrid or microelectronics, photonics  and fabrication of CDS as well as DVDs. Copper sulfide sputtering targets have different and new-fangled dimensions and product geometries.

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What is ITO (indium tin oxide) Sputtering Target?

As its name suggests, ITO sputtering target mainly contains three elements of indium, tin and oxygen. More specifically, ITO sputtering target is a black-gray ceramic semiconductor (as shown below) formed by a series of production processes after indium oxide and tin oxide powder are mixed in a certain ratio, and then sintered in a high temperature atmosphere (1600 degrees, oxygen sintering).


As one of the most widely used transparent conducting oxides, Indium tin oxide (ITO) has good electrical conductivity and optical transparency. The transmittance and resistance of ITO are controlled by the ratio of In2O3 to SnO2, respectively, and the performance is usually best when SnO2:In2O3=1:9. The most common method for preparing ITO films is physical vapor deposition (PVD). To know more information about PVD technology, please read this article What are the uses of PVD (Physical Vapor Deposition) coating. And, to know more about how to produce ITO target, please read another article Four main molding methods for ITO (Indium Tin Oxide) targets.

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Working principles of a resistive touch screen and a capacitive touch screen

resistive touch screen and capacitive touch screenResistive screens and capacitive screens are the two main kinds of mobile screens on the market today. Generally speaking, resistive screen phones can be operated with a finger or a stylus; while capacitive screen phones can only be operated with fingers and cannot be operated with ordinary stylus, but we can use a dedicated capacitive screen stylus to substitute the finger to operate; while the resistive screen phone can be operated with a finger or a stylus. Why do they have such a difference? Is it related to their working principle? Let’s SAM Sputter Targets answer it for you.

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