Lithium Battery Technology-An Overview

What is a lithium battery?

Contrary to some beliefs, lithium batteries are not exclusively composed of metallic lithium. Instead, they encompass a broad category of batteries that can be generally divided into two types: lithium metal batteries and lithium-ion batteries. Typically, the term “lithium battery” refers to batteries that use a lithium metal or lithium alloy as the anode and a non-aqueous electrolyte.

One of the most commonly used lithium-based chemicals in renewable energy applications is lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4). LiFePO4 batteries are known for their high safety standards, excellent thermal stability, high rated current capacity, and long cycle life. These characteristics make them suitable for various applications, including electric vehicles, energy storage systems, and portable electronics.

Lithium battery2


Lithium batteries offer several advantages over traditional batteries like lead-acid, nickel-chrome, and nickel-hydrogen batteries:

  1. Environmental Impact: Lithium batteries do not contain harmful heavy metals such as lead, mercury, or cadmium, making them more environmentally friendly. Their electrolytes are typically organic solvents and lithium salts, which are mostly non-toxic or low-toxic, resulting in relatively low pollution.
  2. Safety: Lithium batteries do not pose a risk of exposure to corrosive electrolytes like sulfuric acid or potassium hydroxide. They generally do not present an explosion hazard even when stored in confined spaces, and their well-designed systems eliminate the need for active cooling or ventilation.
  3. Longevity: Lithium batteries have an exceptionally long cycle life, with some manufacturers guaranteeing up to 10,000 cycles. This long lifespan makes them a cost-effective solution in the long run.
  4. Performance: Lithium batteries provide high energy density, allowing for compact and lightweight battery designs. They also offer high efficiency, quick charging times, and a wide operating temperature range, making them suitable for various demanding applications.
  5. Maintenance: Unlike some traditional batteries, lithium batteries require minimal maintenance, which reduces the total cost of ownership.


The advent of microelectronics technology in the twentieth century has led to an increased demand for miniaturized devices with high-performance power supplies. As a result, lithium batteries have become widely used in various fields:

1. Semiconductor Manufacturing:
  • Wafer Processing: Utilized in semiconductor wafer processing equipment for applications such as epitaxy, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and physical vapor deposition (PVD).
  • Test Equipment: Employed in test and measurement equipment for semiconductor devices.
2. Medical and Laboratory Equipment:
  • DNA Amplification: Used in PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) devices for DNA amplification, where precise temperature control is essential.
  • Analytical Instruments: Integrated into analytical instruments requiring high-temperature operation, such as mass spectrometers and chromatography equipment.
3. Aerospace and Defense:
  • Thermal Management: Utilized in thermal management systems for avionics and other high-performance electronic systems.
4. Industrial Heating:
  • Plastic Welding: Used in plastic welding equipment that requires high temperatures for precise welding operations.
  • Heating Plates and Hot Plates: Employed in heating plates and hot plates for various industrial processes.
5. Optoelectronics:
  • LED Manufacturing: Used in the production of LEDs, where high temperatures and precise control are necessary.
  • Laser Diodes: Integrated into laser diode assemblies for efficient thermal management.
6. Consumer Electronics:
  • Mobile Devices: Lithium-ion batteries power a wide range of mobile devices, including smartphones, tablets, and laptops, due to their compact size and high energy density.
  • Wearable Technology: Used in smartwatches, fitness trackers, and other wearable devices, providing reliable power in a small form factor.
7. Electric Vehicles (EVs):
  • Battery Packs: Lithium-ion batteries are the preferred choice for electric vehicles due to their high energy density, long cycle life, and ability to provide the necessary power for vehicle propulsion.
  • Charging Infrastructure: Supporting fast-charging stations and home charging units, facilitating the widespread adoption of electric vehicles.
8. Renewable Energy Storage:
  • Grid Storage: Lithium batteries are used in large-scale energy storage systems to store electricity generated from renewable sources like solar and wind, ensuring a stable and reliable energy supply.
  • Residential Energy Storage: Used in home energy storage systems, enabling homeowners to store excess solar energy for use during peak demand periods or power outages.

Read more: Understanding Lithium Selenide: Uses and Importance of Sputtering Targets

About Stanford Advanced Materials (SAM)

Stanford Advanced Materials (SAM) Corporation is a global supplier of various sputtering targets, including metals, alloys, oxides, and ceramic materials. We offer high-purity lithium metal, sputtering targets, and evaporation materials. For more information, please visit our website at SAM Sputter Targets.

Deformation Treatment of Aluminum Sputter Targets

Aluminum sputter targets may seem like humble components, but their journey from high-purity aluminum ingots to precision-engineered pieces involves a fascinating process known as deformation treatment. In this article, we’ll explore the intricacies of how high-purity aluminum undergoes deformation to transform into sputter targets, contributing to advancements in thin film technology.


Aluminum sputter targets are the unsung heroes of thin film technology, and the meticulous process they undergo is crucial to their performance. The deformation treatment of aluminum, involving forging, rolling, and heating, is the key to shaping this metal into precision targets. Let’s delve into the journey of how simple aluminum evolves through a series of controlled processes to become an essential component in vacuum coating machines.

Further Reading: An Overview of Aluminum Sputter Target

High-Purity Aluminum Ingot

The journey begins with a high-purity aluminum ingot—a material of utmost importance. High purity is not just a requirement; it’s a necessity. This initial stage sets the foundation for the entire process, ensuring that the aluminum is free from impurities that could compromise the quality of the resulting sputter target.

Forging: Shaping the Futur

The first significant step in the deformation treatment is forging. In simpler terms, forging involves shaping the aluminum through the application of localized compressive forces. Think of it as molding clay but on a microscopic level. The goal is to give the aluminum a preliminary form, setting the stage for subsequent processing.

Forging Aluminum Ingot

Rolling: Refining the Crystal Structure

Following forging, the aluminum undergoes rolling—a process where it is passed through rollers. This isn’t just about flattening the material; it’s about refining the crystal structure. The grains in the aluminum align, creating a more uniform and controlled structure. This refinement is crucial for achieving the desired mechanical properties.

Heating: The Controlled Transformation

Heating is a crucial stage in the deformation treatment process. Controlled heating serves multiple purposes, acting as a catalyst for stress relief, recrystallization, and the elimination of any lingering imperfections. Picture it as a controlled transformation, where the aluminum undergoes changes that enhance its overall properties.

Crystal Grain Refinement and Density Enhancement

Throughout the deformation treatment, the focus is on crystal grain refinement. Finer crystal grains contribute to enhanced strength, improved conductivity, and a more uniform material. Additionally, the density of the aluminum increases, a vital aspect for ensuring the sputter target’s performance during the thin film deposition process.

Processing into Target Size

Once the deformation treatment is complete, the high-purity aluminum material is meticulously processed into the specific size and shape required for the vacuum coater. Precision machining takes center stage, ensuring that the resulting sputter target meets exact specifications, a critical factor for optimal performance.

High Precision and Surface Quality

Precision is paramount in the final stages of the deformation treatment. The processed aluminum must meet stringent standards for both high precision and surface quality. Any imperfection on the surface could compromise the performance of the sputter target, emphasizing the importance of attention to detail in this intricate process.


In conclusion, the deformation treatment of aluminum sputter targets is a journey that transforms a seemingly ordinary material into a crucial component of thin film technology. From the high-purity aluminum ingot to the meticulously processed sputter target, each step plays a vital role in ensuring optimal performance in vacuum coating applications.

Understanding the deformation treatment journey sheds light on the complexity behind the seemingly simple sputter targets, highlighting the precision, care, and engineering prowess required to contribute to advancements in thin film technology.

By appreciating this journey, we gain insight into how a basic metal can undergo controlled transformations, evolving into a component that drives innovation in various industries. The deformation treatment of aluminum sputter targets is a testament to the intersection of simplicity and sophistication in the world of materials science.

For more information, please visit SAM Sputter Targets.

Classification of Molybdenum Target Materials

Molybdenum sputtering targets perform the same as their source material (pure molybdenum or molybdenum alloy). Molybdenum is a metallic element mainly used in steel, where it improves the strength, hardness, weldability and toughness of alloys, as well as high temperature and corrosion resistance. Molybdenum targets are one of the important sputtering materials and are used in aerospace, semiconductor, solar and many other applications.

Different Shapes of Sputtering Target
Different Shapes of Sputtering Target

Classify by Shape of Molybdenum Target

According to the shape of the target, the molybdenum target can be divided into square molybdenum target, circular molybdenum target, molybdenum plate target, rotatory molybdenum target, and molybdenum tube target.

The square molybdenum target has the characteristics of high melting point, high electrical conductivity, low impedance, good corrosion resistance and good environmental performance. It is the most widely used planar molybdenum target.

The circular molybdenum target, or the disc molybdenum target, also has a wide range of applications, which can form films on various types of substrates, and these films can be widely used in electronic components and electronic products.

Molybdenum plate target common thickness is 0.09 inch ~ 3 inch and the surface shows silver-gray metallic luster. Common Specifications (mm) is BCM = 9.9 (0.3-10) (60-400) 800 or bigger.

The rotatory molybdenum target is a rotatable sputtering target that is usually cylindrical and has a fixed magnet so that it will rotate at a low speed during operation.

The length of the molybdenum tube target is generally ≤3000mmm, and the outer diameter is ≤250mm. The wall thickness is 3-25 mm and the flatness is 0.1 mm. In addition, its shape is tubular and the surface shows a silver metallic luster.

Classify by Applications of Molybdenum Target

According to its application, the molybdenum target can be divided into the X-ray molybdenum target, the coated molybdenum target, and etc. Stanford Advanced Materials offers a wide range of high performance, high quality molybdenum targets.

Coated molybdenum target has good properties, including excellent high temperature performance, high temperature physical strength, high elastic modulus, excellent thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance and other properties, so commonly used in the field of coatings, as coating materials.

X-ray molybdenum targets are commonly used in the medical field for breast examination of women. X-ray mammography as a non-invasive method can more fully and accurately reflect the structure of the entire breast.

If you have any interest in molybdenum metal targets, please visit our website at

Image Gallery of SAM Evaporation Materials

High purity evaporation materials play a huge role in deposition processes to ensure high quality deposited film. Stanford Advanced Materials provides various evaporation materials for both thermal and e-beam evaporation, including metal and ceramic boats, filaments, crucibles and heaters, and e-beam crucible liners.

Image Gallery of SAM Sputter Targets

Stanford Advanced Materials (SAM) Corporation is a global supplier of various sputter targets such as metals, alloys, oxides, ceramic materials. We provide sputtering targets for a wide range of applications from ferromagnetic, complex oxides, and semiconducting films.

Reliable Sputtering Target Manufacturer: Stanford Advanced Materials

Part of SAM

Stanford Advanced Materials (SAM) is a global supplier of a series of pure metals, alloys, ceramics and minerals such as oxides, chlorides, sulfides, oxysalts, etc. SAM Sputter Targets is a division of Stanford Advanced Materials, which specializes in manufacturing vacuum coating materials such as sputtering targets and evaporating pellets.

History of SAM

Stanford Advanced Materials was founded in 1994 and now has a history of 25 years.

SAM initially began supplying high-quality rare earth products to assist our customers in research and development (R&D). To meet the growing demand for rare earth products and other materials, SAM now offers sputtering materials not only for our R&D customers but also for manufacturers in the ceramics, metallurgical and electronics industries.

SAM supplies technology-grade materials to the industry and provides research institutions with high-purity chemicals (up to 99.99999%).

Products of SAM

SAM Sputter Targets is your reliable sputtering target manufacturer. SAM has long been committed to providing customers with high quality and reliable sputtering targets at very competitive prices.

Because we understand the importance of reliable and consistent materials to our customers’ R&D and production needs, we have established a strong relationship with our manufacturers.

By regularly visiting our manufacturers and talking to their management, production and quality control engineers and workers on the production line about the quality we seek, we have created truly effective partnerships. These valuable friendships built over the years have enabled us to deliver consistently high quality products to our global customers.

SAM’s motto is “We not only provide products, we also provide satisfactory service.” We believe that you will find SAM one of your favorite sputtering target suppliers.

What SAM Sells:

Alloy Sputtering Targets

Pure Metal Sputtering Targets

Oxide Ceramic Sputtering Targets

Planar Sputtering Targets

Rotatory Sputtering Targets

Click to see our full Product Categories.

For more information, you can contact us by email at or by calling (949) 407-8904. You can also visit our website at for information about our products, services, pricing and news.